Venezuela rejects Obama responses on arrested US filmmaker Tim

  • Wednesday's rulings from the Supreme Court on California's Proposition 8 and also the Defense of Marriage Act provide further evidence of a reality most strategists have known for a little bit: Opposing the right of gay individuals to marry is, increasingly, a losing political proposition. Read full article > >         As the Royal College of Artwork prepares to launch its annual postcard exhibit, Maggi Hambling, Pete Fowler and David Bailey demonstrate the challenges of taking partOn 18 March, RCA Secret returns. Since 1994 the exhibition has raised over £1m to help artists from the outset of their careers. The event asks famous and not-so-famous designers to pit their talents against one another on the back of a postcard. All cards are then sold anonymously pertaining to £45. Potential buyers can view the postcards from the RCA in Battersea, London, or online. This year, 2, 700 cards will go on sale on 23 March. Maggi Hambling"It was wonderful. All the judging committee required was basically a postcard. I can't remember what I dispatched. Something terribly obvious, like the Empire State Building. But that's all you had you need to do – send a postcard. "It's late morning in Clapham, south-west London. Outside it's horribly grey, yet thanks to some enormous windows xp, there is a lot of mild in Maggi Hambling's studio. On a shelf by the largest window are 50 and perhaps cacti and a skull. Several of Hambling's seascapes hang to the walls, their waves about to crash; the space exudes the sense that precisely what an artist's studio should look prefer. Hambling is talking about her scholarship to Los angeles in 1969. "I remember being at Woodstock, " she says smiling, knowing she'll get a good effect. The trip followed seven years just as one art student in London, during which she got by residing off government grants and money via holiday jobs. She contrasts then to now: "The situation for students today is usually criminal. People work at night, and still end up with debt they'll owe to the rest of their lives. Any small thing one can conduct, like making postcards every year, is a good thing. "Hambling has sent in postcards on the Royal College every year since the trick postcard exhibition began in 1994. She strongly supports efforts to raise money for emerging artists who definitely are struggling financially. I ask whether she ever toys with people to the exhibition by sending in your decoy postcard. She scoffs. "Not at all! We paint for ourselves. Artists are very selfish people working on things entirely for themselves... making a piece of art concerns a person alone in a area, with their own demons. Otherwise you might start trying for you to please people! "So the game – that you won't know who has painted which postcard until following your sale – does not affect your girlfriend postcards. But it's clear she gives him or her her all. Whoever ends up with a Hambling card is buying a genuine, as rigorously produced as her several other work: "You address yourself fully to an article of paper, however small. And it's as disciplined a system, as if it were five legs by six. There's no difference. As I say to my young people, Rembrandt could have done a crowd scene using a postage stamp. "Hambling believes paintings are superior to photographs while they stay alive. The appeal of a Titian or even a Van Gogh, she says, is that it is still happening ahead of you; it takes you to where ıt had been created. She hopes her postcards do, too. Pete FowlerOn the ceiling of Pete Fowler's studio is often a lightbulb full of water. "It's just a bit of water while in the electrics – it's fine! " says Fowler, encouraging my delight in the right now surreal bulb. When the leak happened a few weeks ago, Fowler immediately put a picture at Instagram: "It was a very popular graphic that day! "Social media has become important to get Fowler, the artist best known for his assist indie band Super Furry Animals. In fact, it's so important you suspect that will, on finding the leak, he shared a photo of the particular lightbulb first – then checked the force was off. As well as promoting his paintings, Fowler uses Instagram and Twitter to get new inspiration and get feedback in his work. At his desk, he shows me fans' reactions that will his latest project, a giant mural in Swansea for Dylan Thomas flanked by Fowler's hallmark owls, UFOs, and octopi. Naturally, he documented its development on his / her Twitter account @themonsterist. Given this drive to share, he sometimes needs reminding not to – especially prior to a show. Last year, organisers of his exhibition at a Wales Millennium Centre in Cardiff had a quiet word to guarantee he held something back. Thinking it over, he recognises that the anonymity of RCA Secret presents an issue, but is quick to promise he hasn't tweeted pictures of your year's cards. For Fowler, making the RCA cards is among the many highlights of his year: "I just love it, " he says. "I knew it was them once they arrived. I recognised the envelope and believed, right, down tools … I did them daily, here at my desk, with some paint and a color scheme. It was brilliant. And the chance to paint in writing is so appealing, so important for me right nowadays. " Before I can stop your pet, he has told me what is in the cards. I'm not supposed to know. Fowler has contributed cards to the actual fundraiser for six years: "I love everything about it – that affordability, the amount of work there. " He also likes how the show demonstrates than a great image works in any dimension, no matter how small. To prove it, we're back on Twitter. He shows me Tim Burgess's Bebo icon, an image of the Charlatans' lead singer produced by Fowler. He talks me through its develop. Squinting at Twitter icons makes that postcards seem massive. Fowler has heard David Bailey is without a doubt my next interviewee. He's a big fan: "He must have the best set of two eyes of anyone of the 20 th century, really. Mustn't he? Up there with Picasso? " He wants to know more as to what Bailey is submitting. I can't say (I have no idea). David Bailey"No one knows which my own are, do they? They expect John Lennon, 1961. " David Bailey is looking through past postcards he's submitted for RCA Secret. To help me prepare for typically the interview, the RCA sent over scans involving his cards from previous years. Bailey is enjoying seeing them all over again. "What's that? Did I do that? " He laughs and has a closer examine my laptop. The card is a collage of your grasshopper, an angel and a forest. "Oh yeah, we went with Damien [Hirst] in order to Mexico. That grasshopper was in Damien's household on those Eisenstein photographs … It truly is funny how things look better after you haven't seen them for years. "We're sitting on low leather sofas inside the corner of Bailey's London studio during Clerkenwell. Alongside us are Bailey's wife, Catherine, and the manager of a taking pictures store in Soho. By coincidence, on tables at the business end in the studio are black-and-white prints of Hirst. Every so often, Bailey presses his team to ask them to couriered to Hirst's shop. Without the scans, I wouldn't feel confident of holding Bailey's attention for long: exhibitions, books, prints, decisions need to be made every little while. At one point, his assistant shouts over that a call has appear in. "Do you mind if I consider this? " he asks. "No, of course not, " I say. I'm finding it hard not to stay awe of Bailey. It's Pete Fowler's suggestion that's done it – that Bailey delivers the greatest eyes of the 20th one hundred year. Bailey's cards will be some of the most extremely sought after at the RCA – and perhaps the hardest to spot. More than Maggi Hambling and Pete Fowler, he is ready to fox any audience, joke with them. "The best one I did was stick forty quid towards front. I thought, 'At least you get your money-back! '"When Bailey returns, we continue the slideshow. As with much of his visuals, many of the images on this cards are inspired by his childhood in your East End. On one is Chad, the graffiti figure ubiquitous in London throughout the second world war. It's one of the first sketches Bailey remembers seeing. I mention a Chad mural As i saw in Shoreditch recently. "Fuck 'em. I've done about 50 or therefore paintings of him. That size. " He points to a painting of himself with Hitler with a train. Hitler is a recurring figure around Bailey's art. In fact, his name appeared on Bailey's postcard for your RCA's 2009 show: "Oh yeah, Hitler killed the duck! The story behind that is lake was six, we used to go to the cinema a great deal. I used to love watching each of the Disney films. Anyway, the cinema got destroyed by V2s. So for me, Hitler killed the mouse and that duck. "The final card is a photograph connected with an old man with a walking keep to. It starts a story about the correct way pop artist Richard Hamilton used Bailey's pix in his collages. I ask who the man can be. "Fuck knows, " says Bailey. Catherine remembers it was taken throughout Marylebone, which leads to a discussion about whether to provide the photo in a forthcoming job. Bailey decides not to. "Got any more? " he asks. I promise to see if the RCA have another scans and to send them in excess of. He asks if I would like one among his postcards; of course I would. As I leave, I look at the photo to the front. I can't help but think it really is another of his jokes. It's of Lennon and McCartney, 1965. ArtPaintingPhotographyDavid BaileyRoyal College of Artguardian. co. uk © 2013 Guardian News and Media Constrained or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved. | Use of this content is cause to undergo our Terms & Conditions | More FeedsThe desire for multi-disciplinary thinking was clear in Judge’s speak, which cited eight separate areas this any country pursuing nuclear energy have got to address. These ranged from high-level planning along with education to economics, waste management and even the mindset of regulatory relationships, which inevitably vary from country to help country. The U. S., Judge said, provides strict “fences” that delineate what’s allowable, while the British system tends to help you emphasize principles. “I think Americans need clear demarcation... the British are more used to help codes of conduct, so it’s horses for courses, ” she explained. In pre-Fukushima Japan, she said, regulators and operators tended to get overly close, “so there was no competitive worry, which is what you need — a substantial, respected regulator. ” Working to remedy this having a more-independent structure is part of Judge’s mission within the TEPCO committee. But above all, Judge said, “nuclear, first and foremost... is a political issue. You can’t do anything about building power plants unless you get the politics right. ”Read more Egypt, the world's largest importer of wheat or grain, is unlikely to buy soon due to increase in prices and availability connected with wheat stocks, Mamdouh Abdel Fattah, vice chairman of the main authorities wheat buying body GASC, said on Thursday.         "This isn't about saying, 'School's out, away you go kids. ' This is about going to a technical college, doing a couple of days each week on a vocational course and commencing a business or indeed a public sector employer and wedding users and attendents link in their mind, in their DNA, that if you get better seasoned, you make more money, " he adds. Larry Bird will be reintroduced Thursday as being the Indiana Pacers’ president of basketball surgical procedures.         Google's rivals have been given 4 weeks to assess the search giant's offered antitrust remedies, the European Commission announced Thursday. The Commission, the E. U. 's regulatory and executive body, has published Google's proposals to tackle antitrust concerns and said that intrigued parties can submit their feedback across the next month. From bathing suits to bikinis, ear trumpets to implants: Products Through The Ages, a photography project by Ali Mobasser and also Russell Weekes, tracks the evolution of everyday objects from your 1900s to today, and in the process opens an important window on items with which we interact for a daily basisEmotionally, the most moving transformation in the collection of  products over the past hundred years is that on the hearing aid, which begins as a cumbersome ear trumpet and evolves right into a robust and efficient digital device that slips unobtrusively from the ear. Functionally, the most dramatic changes have befallen the device, which has morphed from a real wood box delivering a voice along a crackling line towards the tiny, preternaturally powerful digital device that we have now use to make calls and manage this step many other things, too. Try to imagine that you have not seen a  smartphone before. If you came across one for  the first time, such as the iPhone in all these photographs, how could you guess what it absolutely was meant to do? Looking at it would not guide. Would you expect something slimmer than just a cigarette packet to be more powerful than the bulldozer? And  would there be anything in a appearance to  suggest that it could fulfil that functions of a  telephone, an alarm clock, a camera, internet browser, games console, sound system, diary, address book, satellite navigation system and countless many other objects, too? No. To anyone not already familiar by using it, a tiny digital device such like a smartphone would seem utterly inscrutable. The reason so much computing power will be compressed into so little space is usually that generations of scientists strove 1st to invent the transistor, as  a means of storing data, and then to make it scaled-down. It is a remarkable achievement, which demanded courage, vision, knowledge and skill, but were it not for pattern, their work might never have kept the laboratory and transformed the lives of huge numbers of people. The elemental role of design could be to act as an agent of modify, which helps us to make sense of whatever is occurring around us – scientific innovations, technological advances, economic developments or political trends – so to turn them to our advantage. These photographs depict one of just about the most powerful and familiar manifestations of which will role, by illustrating design's influence on a few of the objects that have been part in daily life in Britain for eco-friendly tea's health benefits century. Compiled and executed by the photographer Ali Mobasser along with the graphic designer Russell Weekes, each photograph reveals a product that was chosen not necessarily to give an example of design virtuosity, or even for being useful, but because it was considered to generally be typical in a particular decade considering that 1900. Many of the objects were obtained in private collections and photographed in their own owners' homes, garages or sheds. Others proved more elusive, and had to be tracked downward elsewhere, often on eBay. Each one offers a glimpse individuals design and social history, and collectively they demonstrate the diverse ways that they design touches our lives: how we feel, what we do, how we look and whether or simply not we achieve our goals. Take the alarm clocks, which provide a potted history connected with design styling with nods to art deco within the 1920s and 1930s, wartime austerity during the 1940s, and the space race and Star Wars inside 1960s and 1980s respectively. Or consider how the progressively sexier contours of this mannequins and ever-skimpier cuts of that swimsuits reflect changing attitudes to sex, women's bodies and gender politics, with a  cheeky wink towards 1990s pop culture from the Baywatch bikini. Then there are the prams and (every time they made the leap to plastic) the actual milk bottles, which looked for much of a final century as if they were trapped from the 1800s, until their designers were finally in a position to reinvent them in new materials. What these photographs do not exhibit is that, having helped to squeeze so a good deal computing power into such unprepossessing containers as computers and smartphones, designers faced another challenge in ensuring we're able to operate their complex technology. In the past, we  were able to work out what direction to go with many products from the visual clues inside their appearance. Had you stumbled across, say, an old-fashioned telephone, you might have concluded that there are reasons the receiver stretched roughly belonging to the ear to your mouth, and that your fingertip fitted hence neatly inside the  dial. There is nothing so helpful that they are gleaned from the smudged glass of iPhone, which is why we depend for its designers for guidance. Tellingly, the iPhone is the only article in the collection to appear a few times – as the 2010s version of your alarm clock, recorded music, as  well as of the telephone. As such, it makes an eloquent statement concerning future of everyday objects such while these. Thanks to digitisation, new products are being invented not to mention old ones are disappearing at remorseless full speed. The last period of history as soon as same process happened on a similar scale was for the turn of the 19th and 20 th centuries, when electricity was becoming accessible to lots of people, as were new contraptions such for the reason that earliest telephones in this collection. Digital technology is having as dramatic an impression on the objects that surround you today. As well as creating new goods, it is replacing others by integrating them into your software of smartphones and computers. In theory, any object is at risk if its function could be fulfilled as efficiently, or more so, by a digital device. The alarm clock is an illustration. Why clutter your home – and finally a landfill site – with one as soon as your smartphone can do its job, and lots of others, too? The same can be said of music cds, as well as of printed tabloids and books, pocket calculators, personal stereos, DVD players and even your front door key. Some of those imperilled objects may possibly survive, but only if they – and / or, rather, their designers – can convince us they can deserve to, perhaps by being so lovely to check out or to touch, or by behaving so intriguingly, that we would miss them whenever they were gone. PhotographySocial historyDesignguardian. co. uk © 2013 Guardian News and Media Reasonably limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved. | Use of this content is be subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds Science cafes about the country are drawing the intellectually curious who won't know that much about science but want in whatever topic is on that evening's agenda. The director of the government’ s G-Cloud, Denise McDonagh, has questioned the European Commission’ s Cloud Computing Strategy, labelling the approach as ‘ old world thinking’.         Europe should engage more firmly with Asia don't just in trade but also in international policy, climate issues and resource efficiency if at all to regain its powerful role with the international arena, argue Giles Merritt and Shada Islam via Friends of Europe. More ' Q: DEAR TIM: I have a patio repair job inside my house. The irregular pieces of limestone can be fine, but the mortar joints between these folks are failing. In some places, the stones have lifted up. The patio is about 20 yrs . old. Roku’s latest set-top box, the Roku 3, is built to be faster, better-looking and easier to use as opposed to its predecessors, but the company has stayed true into the general aesthetics of its device. It’s clear from just looking for the $99. 99 box that the company wasn’t taking a radical redesign. There’s no hint that Roku is looking to test out new tricks such as adding style or motion controls. Read full article > > In a forehead-slapping development, Neiman Marcus and two other retailers settled federal claims they will had marketed rabbit, raccoon and other real fur mainly because fake fur. Watch our film to learn more with regards to the workings of the highest court of the land and meet several of the justicesI thought the supreme court was at America? Where does Lord Sugar sit? What sort of cases does great britain supreme court hear? These are just some of the particular questions — both serious and surreal — recently posed via the younger visitors to our home with Parliament Square. Although the supreme court is the biggest court in the land – acting because final court of appeal in england for civil cases, and for all criminal cases through England, Wales and Northern Ireland – a lot of us understandably struggle to appreciate the pivotal role the court plays with our legal and constitutional systems. Replacing the appellate committee of the place of Lords, the supreme court was established as the separate entity in part to add to the accessibility, and transparency, of how important legal issues are managed by the justices. To that end, in addition to adjudicating on conditions, one of our key objectives could be to educate and inspire people about the united kingdom justice systems. Since opening our doors in 09, we have developed an exhibition space about our history and work with all visitors to see; we produce digestible summaries of the different court's judgments for the press and public which you can follow the court's jurisprudence; we stream our proceedings live on the web and upload judgment summaries to our YouTube channel so the public can see the proceedings; and, perhaps most importantly, we welcome over 300 school, college and university groups each twelve months for guided tours and talks. We hope our new educational dvd will prove a helpful addition towards growing range of learning resources which the court has developed to aid teaching during the classroom about the law and to check visits here. Primarily aimed at GSCE/Standards students – but hopefully of interest towards a wider audience too – the film explores the role and also workings of the supreme court, taking a look around our home and meeting a few of the justices and judicial assistants who perform here. For those of you studying in a more advanced level, visiting courts will no doubt form a natural part of your current course or perhaps one of the many requirements for securing a place. But if you have not still visited the supreme court, we hope the film will entice yourself to come and see the UK's highest court at the office. We are all familiar with the particular phrase that "not only must justice be exercised; it must also be seen to generally be done" — and observing proceedings here will obviously add a new perspective to some of those authorities you read about from your place of Lords and now the GREAT BRITAIN supreme court. UK supreme courtJudiciaryStudying lawJenny Roweguardian. co. uk © 2013 Guardian News and Media Minimal or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved. | Use of this content is be subject to our Terms & Conditions | Further Feeds        From the urban density of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro towards empty sands of Brazil’s northeast. Jonathan Bernier made a career-high forty five saves, defenseman Drew Doughty ended a 32-game, regular-season goal drought, and the Los Angeles Kings overcom the Phoenix Coyotes 3-2 on The following thursday night. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has filed case to force the U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation to start records about a facial-recognition database its building.         The Washington Redskins got the movie star they needed in last year’s condensation. In this draft, the Redskins should help quarterback Robert Griffin 3 by fixing the defense. Any team that made the playoffs notwithstanding a glaring deficiency on defense — the Redskins’ secondary was one of several worst in the league — can’t hope Griffin, who’s rehabbing after major knee surgical treatment, to rescue it as often mainly because he did last season. Factor in that the club didn’t have a very good selection in Thursday’s first round (perhaps the price to get Griffin) plus made no significant additions in free agency while going through the two-year, $36 million salary cap reduction imposed because of the NFL, and it’s clear the Redskins are depending on the remainder of the draft for a lot. Read full article > >         The online video Web site Hulu, in a state of flux as its owners decide what direction to go with it, said that Andy Forssell, the person in charge of content for your site, would become its acting chief professional. With the recent launch of MIT’s Institute for the purpose of Medical Engineering and Science, MIT News examines research with your potential to reshape medicine and health-related through new scientific knowledge, novel treatments and products, better management of medical data, and improvements in health-care delivery. To understand the progression of complex diseases for instance cancer, scientists have had to tease over the interactions between cells at progressively finer scales — in the behavior of a single tumor cell by the body processes on down to the activity of the cell’s inner machinery. To foster such discoveries, mechanical engineers at MIT are styling tools to image and analyze cellular dynamics from the micro- and nanoscale. Such tools, including microfluidics, membrane technology and metamaterials, may help scientists better characterize and develop therapies for cancer as well as other complex diseases. New medical discoveries depend on system advances in real-time, multifunctional imaging and quantitative analysis, says Nicholas Fang, an associate professor of mechanical industrial. “What we’ve learned so far is pretty much the architecture of cells, and the next layer is a dynamics of cells, ” says Fang, who is developing optical sensors to illuminate individual components inside of a cell. “Cells operate like a city, or a metropolitan area: You have traffic, flow of information, and logistics of materials, and responses related to different functions. Medicine requires new modes of looking at these events with better precision during time and space. ” Materials beyond natureFang is growing new imaging tools from metamaterials — materials engineered to signify properties not normally found in mother nature herself. Such materials may be designed simply because “superlenses” that bend and refract lightweight to image extremely small objects. For example, Fang says that today’s best image resolution tools can capture signaling between personal neurons, which may appear as a unclear “plume” of neurotransmitters. A superlens, in contrast, would let scientists see individual neurotransmitter molecules from the scale of a few nanometers. Such acuity, he says, would allow scientists to identify certain chemical transmitters that will be directly related to particular diseases. Metamaterials may also help scientists manipulate cells for the microscale. Fang is exploring the use of metamaterials as optical antennae to further improve a technique known as optogenetics. This technique, developed in 2005 (and pioneered by way of MIT’s Ed Boyden, the Benesse Career Development Associate Teacher of Research in Education), involves genetically engineering proteins to interact to light. Using various colors of light, scientists may control the activity or expression of such proteins to analyze the progression of disease. However, researchers have found that the technique requires a large number of light to prompt a response, risking overheating or damaging the protein of interest. To solve this problem, Fang and his colleagues are planning to metamaterials to design tiny optical receivers, similar to radio antennae. Such receivers would attach to confirmed protein, boosting its receptivity to light, and thereby requiring less light that will activate the protein. The project is in its original stages; Fang says his group is now seeking materials which might be compatible with proteins and other organic tissues. Sorting cellsMIT researchers are also creating tools to sort individual cells — element of an effort to provide simple, cost-effective diagnostic tools for certain ailments. Rohit Karnik, an associate professor of mechanical industrial, is approaching cell sorting from several different directions. His lab is fabricating microfluidic, or “lab-on-a-chip, ” devices — chips as small like a dime that efficiently sort cells, separating out those of interest with a sample of blood or biological liquid. Karnik’s group employs nanofabrication techniques to help etch tiny, precisely patterned channels into small squares from polymer. The arrangement of the channels redirects fluid, capturing cells of interest via “cell running, ” a phenomenon by which cells roll to 1 side of a channel, attracted by a wall’s surface liner. The device is a relatively uncomplicated, passive cell-sorter that Karnik says may efficiently fix material such as white blood cells — cells that might quickly be counted to identify conditions including sepsis and inflammation.  Karnik is also developing smallish membranes punctured with microscopic pores. Each pore is a few nanometers tremendous, small enough to let individual DNA elements through. By passing an electric current from your nanopore, the researchers can measure certain characteristics of an DNA molecule, such as its size and the presence of any extra proteins bound to it. Such membrane technology may drastically simplify the procedure of sizing DNA molecules and mapping DNA adjustments, which are critical for understanding gene regulation and then the dynamics of cellular machinery — now a long process that involves expensive bench-top equipment. Instead, Karnik says, nanopore membranes may be a speedier, cheaper alternative that could work with single DNA molecules without any loss of information from DNA-amplification techniques. Cancer in a chipResearchers are investigating microfluidics not only as a way to sort cells, but as a way of replicating whole biological environments around the microscale. “We use microfluidics to develop more realistic types of organs and human physiology so that any of us can look at, for example, how a tumor cell interacts with other cells from the local environment, ” says Roger Kamm, the Cecil and Ida Green Recognized Professor of Biological and Mechanical Executive. Kamm and his colleagues have developed a microfluidic chip consisting of tiny channels and reservoirs, in which they can seed many cell types. The group is using the device to analyze how cancer spreads through the overall body. Cancer becomes metastatic when tumor cells break removed from a primary tumor and cross by using a blood vessel wall and into the particular bloodstream. Kamm is using the group’s microfluidic concepts to mimic the metastatic process and identify agents in order to avoid it. To replicate the lining of the blood vessel, Kamm seeds one channel in the particular chip with endothelial cells. In a neighboring channel, he injects a gel, mimicking the body’s extracellular matrix. The group can introduce tumor cells towards the gel, along with other chemical agents. In the controlled setup, they can monitor the behavior involving tumor cells, and the conditions in which the actual cells penetrate the endothelial lining, in order to enter a bloodstream vessel. “This allows us to put cells in close proximity so as to signal with each other in a realistic fashion, ” Kamm says. Compared with conventional cancer-screening techniques, the microfluidic technique more closely resembles natural processes chemistry, Kamm says. For example, pharmaceutical companies tend to test opportunity drugs in large batches, injecting a drug into tiny, isolated wells containing tumor cells. That works well to test with regard to drugs that kill the tumor, but not so well for identifying drugs which could prevent metastatic disease. “What we’re finding is that cells behave completely differently when you experience a realistic environment, with cells communicating with different mobile or portable types, and when a cell is inside of a three-dimensional matrix, as opposed to when you have a very good single cell type inside a well for the two-dimensional, rigid surface, ” Kamm says. “High-throughput systems probably miss a great number of potentially good drugs, and they also identify drugs which fail at subsequent stages of assessing. ”Karnik, who has collaborated with Kamm for the few lab-on-a-chip designs, sees such devices and other engineering tools like a key connection in pushing medical breakthroughs, and effective therapies, forward. “A clinician might say, ‘I need to know whether a man has this disease or that diseases, ’ and the biologist would declare, ‘Oh, in order to do that, you need to measure molecules The, B and C, ’ and it’s up to the engineers to discover how to do it, ” Karnik says. “That’s our key role, bridging in between. ” European Union antitrust authorities raided the actual offices of major telecommunications companies this week within a inquiry into anticompetitive behavior. Since the 1970s, when early autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) had been developed at MIT, Institute scientists have tackled various barriers to robots that will travel autonomously in the deep beach. This four-part series examines current MIT work to refine AUVs’ artificial intelligence, navigation, stability and tenacity. Anyone who has steered a boat knows how much effort can be keep the boat on course when currents are pushing it in several directions. Now, MIT researchers have developed sensors which may measure the pressure of flows around an oceangoing vessel in order that it can utilize rather than fight all those flows, saving energy and improving maneuverability. Other work aims to go an important step further: to change flows from patterns that impede progress to patterns which will help. Flows around autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) together with other vessels — from ships to submarines — will significantly affect their performance. For example, when a vessel going 20 miles hourly turns sharply, it pushes into the current one side and creates swirling eddies at the other; as a result, its speed can drop suddenly to seven miles hourly. The behavior of control surfaces such as rudders and propellers may well also be affected. A propeller operating in waves, for instance, can experience cavitation, a phenomenon in which vapor layers form for the blades, impeding performance. Preventing such phenomena could mean finer, more energy-efficient operation. Indeed, oceangoing vessels are now responsible designed for 8. 6 percent of the world’s entire annual oil consumption, so even a small increase inside efficiency could mean significant energy reductions. Natural sea creatures do not experience such problems simply because have special organs that enable it to sense their environment. In many fish, dark-colored “lateral lines” running down its sides and around their heads contain many tiny pressure and velocity sensors that perceive every minute change from the water flowing by, enabling the fish to turn or perhaps take other appropriate action. The effect can be astonishing. The Mexican cavefish, for example, lives in absolute darkness. As a result, it has no eyes and must navigate only using its lateral lines. In an experimental setting, a cavefish can dart among challenges, moving quickly along their edges along with ducking through openings between them. “We want to design sensors for the vessels that can do exactly exactly what the lateral lines do for striper, ” says Michael Triantafyllou, the William I. Koch Professor of Marine Technology as well as professor of mechanical and ocean industrial. “But while we get ideas via fish, we needn’t use exactly the same design how they do. ” In fish, the lateral lines are made way up of systems of fluid-filled canals including tiny hairs that monitor flows and send messages instantly to the fish’s brain. “This is an organ we don’t currently have, so we have no idea of how it works, but it’s good because it’s uncomplicated and doesn’t require the intense working out that vision requires, for example, ” Triantafyllou says. The engineered version, he adds, should likewise generate “simple signals to ensure — without using a huge computer — could immediately what’s going on and will take action. ”To design and fabricate his burden sensors, Triantafyllou turned to the MIT Microsystems Systems Laboratories (MTL). There, experts make various types of cheap, high-performance sensors based on microelectromechanical products (MEMS) — the technological know-how of small mechanical devices driven as a result of electricity. Led by Jeffrey Lang, a professor of electrical engineering, an MTL team designed arrays in pressure sensors, each of which is a two-millimeter-wide cavity included in a 20-micron-thick silicon membrane that bends in step to pressure. A metal strain gauge on the of each membrane senses that deflection and generates a sign that indicates pressure. Electronic systems amplify and integrate the signals from every one of the sensors, producing pressure information that can turn out to be displayed continuously online. In tests on small vessels as well as propellers, the sensor arrays proved robust and more sensitive than expected. In one set of experiments, Triantafyllou and his colleagues in the middle for Ocean Engineering equipped a tiny vessel with sensors in locations that mimic where they're on fish. They also installed commercially available sensors designed to generate reliable measurements for comparison together with guidance. Then they performed experiments in a 108-foot-long MIT Towing Tank, a test facility equipped with an important wave generator. In those experiments, they simulated a common situation: A vessel is traveling straight forward, but the oncoming current is drawing near to at an angle, so the vessel must exert vitality to offset that force. A more energy-efficient approach would get to head straight into the current so long as possible and then turn, much as a sailboat tacks in your wind. Pressure measurements could guide the execution of this kind of energy-saving maneuver. To replicate that situation, the researchers propel their vessel within oncoming flows from the wave generator then at a gradually increasing angle. As the angle increases, pressure asymmetries increase dramatically. The combination of low pressure using one side and high pressure on the opposite creates a drag force that must definitely be overcome — a significant waste of one's. “The effect is very detectable, ” Triantafyllou says. “These sharp pressure signals can guide us once we develop techniques to navigate and maneuver more effectively. ”Other work aims to detect eddies, swirling fluid structures that can in addition profoundly affect navigation. Again, fish use their lateral lines for eddies — and then take benefit from them. In one video, a trout swims in a aquarium as eddies come toward it, first from one side and then within the other. The trout senses the eddies and uses their suction force in which to stay one place without swimming, thereby expending little energy. To test their ability to distinguish eddies, the researchers again used the MIT Towing Water tank. For these tests, they seeded the water with little particles and shone a laser beam from below to be able to observe the patterns of flow with out disturbing them. Four sensors measured pressure as hand-generated eddies swirled with the tank. Based on the pressure signals, a flow model estimated the position and strength within the eddies. The model accurately tracked the behavior within the eddies within the tank. Triantafyllou and his team are now developing ways of controlling flows that interfere with propulsion along with maneuverability. In one project, they designed a torpedo-shaped submersible vehicle which includes pressure sensors plus two small spinning cylinders running down its sides. When the submersible heads at an angle towards the oncoming flow, the pressure sensors detect the formation of eddies and commence the small cylinders spinning. The cylinders spin in opposite instructions, creating suction that immediately prevents eddies by forming. The team is also looking on another possible animal model: the whisker of a seal. This organ has a remarkable power to sense the velocities of flows. In experiments, a blindfolded harbor seal can detect the passage associated with a fish by using its whiskers that will sense changes in flow velocity — also 30 seconds after its prey has got passed by. The researchers recently acquired whiskers shed by seals on the New England Aquarium in Boston. They have now developed large-scale types of these elaborate, undulating structures and are developing computer simulations of the direction they behave. “We’re trying to understand why a lot of these whiskers work so well, ” Triantafyllou says. “Once again, we hope to emulate the capability of seagoing creatures to sense passes around them — a prerequisite to developing solutions to make our vessels more energy useful and maneuverable. ”Next: MIT researchers design a “controllable adhesion system” with regard to underwater robots. Mr. Glover, who plays the former high institution football star Troy Barnes, will appear in only 5 episodes of the planned 13-episode “Community” season.        

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